Inside the White House


Chapter Four: The First Lady  ›

"Dressing a public monument": "Pointers Given Next First Lady," Victoria Advocate (Victoria, Texas), October 24, 1960

Jason Wu-designed inaugural gown: Eric Wilson, "Mrs. Obama's Inaugural Wardrobe by Many Designers," New York Times, January 21, 2013

Martha Washington: William Seale, The President's House: A History, Vol. 1 (Washington: White House Historical Association, 2008), 9-10; Patricia Brady, Martha Washington: An American Life (New York: Viking, 2005), 167-169

Abigail Adams: Phyllis Lee Levin, Abigail Adams: A Biography (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987), 305-310, 317-318, 331, 338-339, 341, 347, 356-357, 374, 387-390; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 80-85

Thomas Jefferson White House: Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 103, 106; Merrill D. Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), 720-730

Dolley Madison: Catherine Allgor, Parlor Politics: In Which the Ladies of Washington Help Build a City and a Government (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2000), 48-101; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 124-127, 129-133;Galliard Hunt, Life in America One Hundred Years Ago (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1914), 168; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 124-127, 129-133; Maurine H. Beasley, First Ladies and the Press, The Unfinished Partnership of the Media Age (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 2005), 35

Elizabeth Monroe: Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 143, 156; George Morgan, The Life of James Monroe (Boston: Small, Maynard and Co., Inc., 1921), 410-416; Harlow Giles Unger, The Last Founding Father: James Monroe and A Nation's Call to Greatness (Boston: Da Capo Press, 2009), 278-285

Louisa Adams: Paul C. Nagel, The Adams Women: Abigail and Louisa Adams, Their Sisters and Daughters (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), 211-212, 214-229; Judith S. Graham, Beth Luey, Margaret A. Hogan, and C. James Taylor, eds., Diary and Autobiographical Writings of Louisa Catherine Adams, Vol. 2, 1819-1849. (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2013)

Angelica Van Buren: Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 211; Mary S. Lockwood, "The White House During the Administrations of Martin Van Buren and William Henry Harrison," in Historic Homes in Washington: Its Noted Men and Women (New York: Belford Co., Publishers, 1889), 87

Harriet Lane: Pamela Kilian, "James Buchanan's White House Hostess: The Celebrated Harriet Lane," White House History 12 (Winter 2003), 4-13

Julia Grant and first state dinner: Gilson Willets, "Grant Receives the King of the Sandwich Islands," in Inside History of the White House (New York: Christian Herald, 1908), 370; "King Kalakaua at the White House," New York Times, December 16, 1874

Grover Cleveland White House: Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 538-543

Frances Cleveland: Annette B. Dunlap, Frank: The Story of Frances Folsom Cleveland, America's Youngest First Lady (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2009), 37; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 549, 587

Edith Roosevelt: Sylvia Jukes Morris, Edith Roosevelt: Portrait of a First Lady (New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, Inc., 1980), 254, 304-307; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 685-687

Abigail Fillmore and White House library: Elizabeth Lorelei Thacker-Estrada, "Abigail Powers Fillmore: First Lady of the Library," in Catherine M. Parisian, ed., The First White House Library: A History and Annotated Catalog (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2010), 39-53; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 285

Lucy Hayes: Hans L. Trefousse, Rutherford B. Hayes (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2002), 99-100; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 472-475

Caroline Harrison and White House expansion plan: Randolph Keim, "A New White House: Mrs. Harrison's Plan for a New Executive Mansion," Philadelphia Inquirer, March 9, 1890; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 1, 560-66; "A Larger White House: Its Extension Provided for in Senator Stanford's Bill," Washington Post, January 10, 1891

Helen Taft Potomac Park speedway and cherry blossoms project: "Host on Parkway: Notables in Carriage and Auto Throng New Concourse," Washington Post, April 18, 1909; "Blooms from Japan; Three Thousand Trees Capable of Luxuriant Growth," Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), March 31, 1912; "Her Labor of Love; Miss Scidmore Procured Cherry Trees for Us," Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), December 31, 1909; "Mrs. Taft Plants a Tree; Superintends Work of Beginning Cherry Grove on the Speedway," Washington Post, March 28, 1912

Ellen Wilson; alley dwellings legislation: Frances Wright Saunders, Ellen Axson Wilson: First Lady Between Two Worlds (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985), 244-246; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 2, 44-45

Edith Wilson: Edith Bolling Wilson, My Memoir (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1939), 55-56, 86-87; "Surge to Buy Bonds: D.C. Residents Pledge More Than $3,000,000 to Third Loan; Movie Stars Big Attraction," Washington Post, April 7, 1918; "Sheep to Graze at White House: Mr. Wilson to Have Flock on the Lawns Soon," Washington Post, April 30, 1918; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 2, 62

Florence Harding: Katherine A.S. Sibley, First Lady Florence Harding: Behind the Tragedy and Controversy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009), 77, 80, 81, 112, 170; Seale, The President's House, Vol. 2, 96-106

Grace Coolidge: Robert H. Ferrell, Grace Coolidge: The People's Lady in Silent Cal's White House (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2008), 101-104; Kristie Miller, "Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge" in Lewis L. Gould, ed., American First Ladies: Their Lives and Legacy. 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 2001), 266

Lou Hoover: Nancy Beck Young, Lou Henry Hoover: Activist First Lady (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 65-71

Eleanor Roosevelt: Seale, The President's House, Vol. 2, 186-189; Blanche Wiesen Cook. Eleanor Roosevelt, Vol. 2, 1933-1938 (New York: Viking, 1999); Maurine H. Beasley, Eleanor Roosevelt: Transformative First Lady (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2010)

Bess Truman: M. Heather Carver, "Bess Wallace Truman: The 'Boss' from Independence," in Molly Meijer Wertheimer, ed., Inventing a Voice: The Rhetoric of American First Ladies of the Twentieth Century (Lanham, Md. : Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2004), 205-222

Mamie Eisenhower: Marilyn Irvin Holt, Mamie Doud Eisenhower: The General's First Lady (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2007), 100-108

Increase in First Lady staff: Anthony J. Eksterowicz and Kristen Paynter, "The Evolution of the Role and Office of the First Lady: The Movement Towards Integration with the White House Office," Social Science Journal 37 (2000), 547-562

"Much more of a 24-hour job": Jane Howard, "Forward Day by Day: The 38th First Lady," New York Times, December 8, 1974

Abigail Adams as "Mrs. President": Janet Hubbard-Brown, Abigail Adams: First Lady (New York: Chelsea House/Infobase Publishing, 2009), 80; Edith P. Mayo, general ed., "Abigail Adams," in The Smithsonian Book of the First Ladies: Their Lives, Times, and Issues (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1996), 20

Jacqueline Kennedy: Seale, The President's House, Vol. 2, 335-352; Barbara A. Perry, Jacqueline Kennedy: First Lady of the New Frontier (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004)

Lady Bird Johnson: Jan Jarboe Russell, Lady Bird: A Biography of Mrs. Johnson (New York: Scribner, 1999), 276-81; Lady Bird Johnson, A White House Diary (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970)

Pat Nixon: Mary C. Brennan, Pat Nixon: Embattled First Lady (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011), 116, 124

Betty Ford: John Robert Greene, Betty Ford: Candor and Courage in the White House (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), 46-51, 79-80, 110

Rosalynn Carter: Scott Kaufman, Rosalynn Carter: Equal Partner in the White House (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2007), 36-49, 62-74, 82-85, 99-100, 129-131

Nancy Reagan: Nancy Reagan (with William Novak), My Turn: The Memoirs of Nancy Reagan (New York: Random House, 1989), 139, 169; Albin Krebs and Robert McG. Thomas, "First Lady to Write on Foster Grandparents," New York Times, August 22, 1981; Desson Howe, "The Noes Have It: Nancy Reagan Hosts Children's Antidrug Rally," Washington Post, May 23, 1986; Molly Sinclair, "Drug Abuse Conference Opens Here; Mrs. Reagan Hails Parents' Campaign," Washington Post, October 12, 1982

Barbara Bush: Barbara Bush, Barbara Bush: A Memoir (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1994), 188-189, 250-251, 309, 368, 432-434, 460; Donnie Radcliffe, "Barbara Bush Foundation Gives $500,000 for Literacy," Washington Post, September 8, 1990

Hillary Clinton: Hillary Rodham Clinton, Living History (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003), 143-154, 292-293, 298-306, 433-435; Hillary Rodham Clinton, An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000)

"When George asked me": Margaret Brown Klapthor, and Allida M. Black, contributing author, First Ladies of the United States of America. 10th ed. (Washington: White House Historical Association, 2001), 95

Laura Bush: Laura Bush, Spoken from the Heart (New York: Scribner, 2010), 180, 194, 233-234, 237-238, 375

Michelle Obama: Nia-Malika Henderson and Erin Williams, "Michelle Obama, Jill Biden to Lead Effort to Help Military Families," Washington Post, April 12, 2011; Robin Givhan, "First Lady Michelle Obama: 'Let's Move' and Work on Childhood Obesity Problem," Washington Post, February 10, 2010; Jane Black, "Schoolchildren Join First Lady for White House Garden Groundbreaking," Washington Post, March 21, 2009

White House Social Secretary: "History of the Office of the White House Social Secretary" White House Historical Association

Hagner vs. Bingham: "Social and Personal: Miss Hagner Chosen as Secretary to Mrs. Roosevelt," Washington Post, October 3, 1901; "Memoirs of Isabella Hagner 1901-1905: Social Secretary to First Lady Edith Carow Roosevelt," White House History 26 (Fall 2009), 42-52; Priscilla Roosevelt, "Memoirs: The First White House Social Secretary, Isabella Hagner," White House History 26 (Fall 2009), 53-88

Roosevelt reorganization of White House: Seale, The President's House, Vol. 2, 663-668

Roosevelt state entertainment precedents: Seale, The President's House, Vol. 2, 680-681

Grace Coolidge and Laura Harlan: Miller, "Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge," 266

Eleanor Roosevelt and Malvina Thompson, Edith Helm: Blanche Wiesen Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt, Volume 2: 1933-1938 (New York: Viking, 1999), 11-12; Edith Benham Helm, The Captains and the Kings (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1954), vi

Bess Truman press conferences: Helm, The Captains and the Kings, 257

Mary Jane McCaffree: Holt, Mamie Doud Eisenhower, 74

Event planning: Emily Langer, "Letitia Baldrige Dies at 86: 'Doyenne of Decorum' was Social Secretary to First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy," Washington Post, October 30, 2012

"Best job in the White House": "Social Secretary Quotes" in The White House Social Secretary: Welcoming the World to the President's House, White House Historical Association

Care package for White House social secretaries: "Social Secretary Quotes," White House Historical Association




»  Chapter One

»  Chapter Two

»  Chapter Three

»  Chapter Four

»  Chapter Five

»  Chapter Six

»  Chapter Seven

»  Chapter Eight

»  Chapter Nine

»  Chapter Ten


»  Source Note Index