Government under the Constitution of the United States began on March 4, 1789. Inauguration day was officially March 4 from 1793 through 1933.
The White House Historical Association | Exhibits
The four months between a presidential election in early November and an inauguration on March 4 proved to be too long. By the 20th Amendment to the Constitution (ratified in 1933), inauguration day was changed to January 20.