Book cover: Colored Man’s Reminiscences of James Madison by Paul Jennings, 1865.
The first documented memoir by a White House worker, Colored Man’s Reminiscences of James Madison, remained obscure for many years because so few copies were printed.
Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Howard University
White House census record, 1830.
The U.S. Census in 1830 recorded 14 slaves living in the White House while Andrew Jackson was president. Six slaves were male (two under 10 years; two between 10 and 24; and two between 24 and 36). Eight slaves were female (three under 10; four between 10 and 24; and one between 24 and 36).
National Archives and Records Administration