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The White House Collection and the Atlantic World

Enslaved Artisans

  • James E. Newton, “SLAVE ARTISANS AND CRAFTSMEN: THE ROOTS OF AFRO-AMERICAN ART,” The Black Scholar Vol. 9, No. 3 (1977).
  • 1798 Federal Direct Tax of Maryland in Bethany J. McGlyn, “WHO BUILT THE CITY ON THE SEVERN? SLAVERY, MATERIAL CULTURE, AND LANDSCAPES OF LABOR IN EARLY ANNAPOLIS,” M.A. Thesis, (University of Delaware: 2020).
  • “John Shaw in 1800 Census,” Year: 1800; Census Place: Annapolis, Anne Arundel, Maryland; Series: M32; Roll: 9; Page: 60; Image: 39; Family History Library Film: 193662.
  • Sarah Fling, “Philip Reed,” White House Historical Association, https://www.whitehousehistory..... See also John Philip Colletta, "Clark Mills and His Enslaved Assistant, Philip Reed: The Collaboration the Culminated in Freedom," The Capitol Dome Vol. 57 (Summer 2020), 15-31.
  • “Petition of Clark Mills, 20 June 1862,” Civil War Washington,
  • “Philip Reid and the Statue of Freedom,” Architect of the Capitol,
  • Gwendolyn DuBois Shaw, “’Moses Williams, Cutter of Profiles’: Silhouettes and African American Identity in the Early Republic," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 149, no. 1 (2005).
  • Lillian B. Miller, The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family: Volume I (New Haven and London. Yale University Press, 1984).
  • Rembrandt Peale, "The Physiognotrace," The Crayon, October 1857, 307-308.
  • Anne Verplanck, “Peale’s Museum Silhouettes,” InCollect,

Slavery at the White House

The Fight for Emancipation